La Ley Monsanto y el Acuerdo de las Transnacionales TPP


13221014_1304614609565999_2349200226809611800_nLa Ley Monsanto renació arropada por el Acuerdo de las Trasnacionales TPP, que exige la ratificación del convenio UPOV91, de privatización de la semilla. El senado nunca llegó a votar ese proyecto de nombre críptico: “Ley de Derechos de Obtentores Vegetales”  (traducido como Ley Monsanto), que viabilizaba la adscripción al convenio internacional UPOV 91 dictado por las transnacionales productoras de semillas híbridas y transgénicas.

En marzo de 2014, se produjo  la retirada de la Ley Monsanto por el recién asumido gobierno de Bachelet “para su revisión por atentar contra la biodiversidad y la soberanía alimentaria.” Esa fue la  primera medida de la presidenta, dada a conocer a través de la entonces secretaria de gobierno y ex senadora, Ximena Rincón.

El gobierno miente cuando argumenta que Chile ya ratificó el Convenio UPOV 91. Sin Ley de Obtentores, o sea sin una nueva Ley de Semillas, el gobierno no pudo implementar la ratificación del Convenio UPOV 91 ya votada por el Congreso, pues ello requiere una ley nacional sobre el tema. Por tanto hasta la fecha el país sigue rigiéndose por la versión 1978 de ese convenio, como se puede comprobar en la sección Members de  www.upov.org/portal/index.html

Se requirieron seis años de lucha para atajar la “Ley Monsanto”  firmada por Michelle Bachelet en 2008, su primer gobierno, e impulsada luego por Sebastián Piñera. El proyecto garantizaba más lucro para las transnacionales de la biotecnología a costa de la privatización de la semilla, y de la consiguiente destrucción de la agricultura familiar campesina y la biodiversidad. Bachelet fue interpelada duramente en actos de su campaña electoral en Limache y Temuco, tras lo cual prometió “revisar” el proyecto.

En 2008, pocos sabían que Monsanto controla el mercado global de semillas transgénicas y con sus empresas Anasac Chile y Seminis, es la principal “obtentora” (dueña) de semillas híbridas. En 2016 Monsanto intenta fortalecer su presencia en Chile con un proyecto de expansión de su  planta de semillas trasngénicas de Paine, muy resistido por la comunidad. Años atrás, la gente tampoco asociaba el cáncer y las enfermedades crónicas, con la agricultura intensiva en uso de plaguicidas ni con los alimentos transgénicos. Fue clave la visita a Chile de la documentalista francesa Marie Monique Robin el 2009, invitada por la Red de Acción en Plaguicidas (RAP-AL) a lanzar su célebre video “El Mundo Según Monsanto”.

Ahora con la Plataforma Chile Mejor sin TPP, que agrupa a más de cien organizaciones del país,  quienes luchamos hace poco contra la Ley Monsanto, seguiremos trabajando contra su nueva versión, porque necesitamos semillas libres de patentes, transgénicos y plaguicidas. Nuestro desafío es asegurar el libre flujo de la semilla campesina e indígena, mediante políticas públicas de apoyo a la agroecología y la agricultura familiar campesina.

El triple pack pro transgénicos

Monsanto, Syngenta, Dupont-Pioneer, Bayer y  sus socios chileno, entre los cuales está el clan von Baer, buscan avanzar hacia la legalización de los cultivos transgénicos, dañinos para el medio ambiente y la salud de las personas. Hoy están autorizados sólo para la exportación. El Acuerdo de las Transnacionales TPP ayudará a Monsanto, ya que considera “obstáculos al comercio” todas las medidas que atenten contra sus expectativas de ganancia, como una moratoria, o el etiquetado de alimentos transgénicos o las multas por contaminación.

Empresas y gobiernos idearon hace tiempo un “triple pack” cuya primera parte era lograr la aprobación del Convenio UPOV 91 de propiedad intelectual sobre la semilla. La segunda era derogar la actual ley de semillas y remplazarla por la Ley Monsanto. La fase tercera incluía retomar la discusión de la Ley de Transgénicos (llamada de Bioseguridad). La movilización social de los últimos años desbarató ese plan. El UPOV91 aprobado en 2011 por el senado, sólo era válido si se aprobaba la Ley Monsanto.

Como RAP-AL estuvimos el 2010 en la Cámara de Diputados, junto a Agricultores orgánicos del Biobio y Chiloé, ANAMURI, Grain, Biodinámicos, CET y el obispo emérito de Chiloé Juan Luis Ysern.  Alertamos sobre el real significado del proyecto de ley de Obtentores Vegetales, que propinaría un golpe mortal a la agricultura familiar campesina, El entonces presidente de la comisión de agricultura, Marco Enríquez-Ominami, se mostró receptivo a nuestros planteamientos, sin embargo su ingreso a la carrera presidencial dejó un vacío en la interlocución, y en marzo de 2010 la Cámara de Diputados aprobó el proyecto de Obtentores Vegetales, un día antes que asumiera el presidente Piñera y el nuevo parlamento. Pero aún faltaba el voto en el Senado.

Un año después, en 2011 el Senado puso en tabla sorpresivamente  el Convenio UPOV 91 y lo aprobó entre gallos y medianoche. “Senado chileno vendió a Monsanto la semilla campesina e indígena” fue el titular de inicio de una serie de artículos que publicamos sobre el tema y que aun circulan en redes sociales. La petición formulada después al Tribunal Constitucional por 17 senadores apoyados por organizaciones campesinas, indígenas, y sociales de declarar ilegal ese convenio, fue denegada.
El gobierno de Piñera envió en 2011 al Senado indicaciones para el proyecto de BioSeguridad/Transgénicos, pero no pudo avanzar. La movilización estudiantil copó la agenda, dándonos tiempo para compartir con comunidades campesinas e indígenas y asambleas estudiantiles, de Iquique a Chiloé, con ayuda de “Chile, la semilla campesina en peligro”, mi libro reportaje, el primero referido a las guardadoras de semillas, y a las leyes relacionadas con el tema.

Nace la campaña YNQT

Ese año 2011 nació la campaña Yo No Quiero Transgénicos en Chile, en cuya fundación participó RAPAL junto a BioBio Orgánico, la Red SocioAmbiental de Valparaíso (que formó ahora “Yo NO Quiero TPP en la V Región”), la Asamblea Social del Limarí, la Red Ambiental del Norte, Chiloé Orgánico, Tierra Nueva, la Revolución de la Cuchara, OLCA, Consumidores Conscientes de Valdivia, Linares y Ancud, y Permacultores de la BioRegión del Maipo, entre muchos otros colectivos. Se multiplicaron las actividades de difusión que incluyeron un video de la campaña (seguido por un documental de los “Transgeniales”) y más adelante, fotos con Vandana Shiva, Manu Chao y Natalia Contesse adhiriendo a la causa. Hicimos cabildos en Chillán con BioBio Orgánico y publicamos la Guía de Alimentos que Pueden Contener Transgénicos; desarrollamos talleres y acciones de autoetiquetado de alimentos transgénicos en supermercados de Santiago y regiones.

En 2012, el testimonio de apicultores en una audiencia pública convocada por el Consejo para la Transparencia, visibilizó por primera vez el daño causado por  Monsanto, Syngenta y otras semilleras: polen contaminado por el maíz transgénico. Los apicultores exigían saber quién los contaminó. El significativo fallo del Consejo, que puso fin al secreto en la ubicación de los cultivos transgénicos, fue la respuesta a una demanda presentada por RAP-AL en 2009, cuando se promulgó la Ley de Transparencia.

Poco después, la entonces senadora Ximena Rincón y el senador Juan Pablo Letelier, entre otros,  presentaron un proyecto de moratoria a los transgénicos y etiquetado de los alimentos con ingredientes de ese tipo. Sin embargo la iniciativa  nunca fue discutida en comisión alguna del senado. Ese año, un estudio del científico francés Gilles Séralini evidenció daños en pulmón e hígado y enormes tumores en ratas alimentadas toda su vida con maíz transgénico y Roundup de Monsanto, lo que alertó a sectores cada vez más amplios de la población que estos alimentos no son sanos ni seguros.

En 2013 el gobierno de Piñera puso urgencia a la Ley de Obtentores Vegetales, y la campaña Yo No Quiero Transgénicos en Chile la rebautizó como Ley Mosanto, aludiendo a su mayor beneficiario. En ese marco nació también la Red de Semillas Libres que hoy juega un importante rol en la defensa de la semilla tradicional.

Argumentamos entonces en la Comisión de Agricultura del Senado, que la Ley Monsanto era –y sigue siendo- innecesaria. Las empresas registran todos los meses sus híbridos en  el Registro de Semillas (dependiente del SAG), nacido en 1996 al amparo de la actual ley de Semillas y del Convenio UPOV del año 1978, y obtienen enormes ganancias por su venta. Dijimos que los países ricos en biodiversidad NO han firmado el convenio UPOV 91 y tampoco lo han hecho países como Canadá, Nueva Zelanda e Italia que están entre los principales registrantes de semillas en Chile. La novedad es que Canadá firmó el UPOV 91 este año. Nueva Zelanda no lo ha hecho y sus pueblos indígenas rechazan el Acuerdo de las Transnacionales TPP porque su gobierno no los consultó al respecto.

Alertamos en el senado y en la calle que el intercambio de semillas, una práctica ancestral, sería criminalizada y los campesinos y campesinas ya no podrían disponer libremente de la semilla.

Explicamos que la ley generaría pérdida de biodiversidad por erosión genética y porque las semillas nativas, así como las locales campesinas e indígenas no tienen protección legal. Podrían ser registradas mediante cambios cosméticos obtenidos en laboratorio a fin de ser “distintas” de otras variedades. Chile no tiene catastro de su patrimonio fitogenético ni ha firmado los tratados internacionales de Naciones Unidas que protegen esos bienes (el Protocolo de Cartagena de Seguridad de la Biotecnología: los Protocolos de Nagoya sobre Acceso a los Recursos Genéticos y Participación Justa y Equitativa en los Beneficios Derivados; y de Responsabilidad y Compensación por Daño). Con el Acuerdo de las Transnacionales TPP la situación es peor: puede ser patentado además todo el conocimiento ancestral que no esté registrado. Y en Chile no existe registro alguno de conocimiento ancestral.

Sin consulta indígena

Denunciamos entonces que los pueblos indígenas no habían sido consultados según dispone el Convenio 169. Y tampoco serán consultados ahora con el TPP respecto de este y otros asuntos relevantes para sus derechos y sus territorios, ya que las inversiones que el Acuerdo de las Transnacionales defiende y asegura, estarán sin duda ubicadas en territorios indígenas. Señalamos que los consumidores dependeríamos de los supermercados y de la agroindustria porque los pequeños campesinos al no poder pagar todos los años semillas caras, migrarían a la ciudad y en sus territorios, los monocultivos transgénicos remplazarían los cultivos alimentarios. Las tierras que hoy ocupan los pequeños agricultores serán copadas por las forestales y los semilleros transgénicos de raps (canola). Lo dijimos en el Senado y lo gritamos en la calle, en marchas, velatones, intercambios de semilla y ferias.

Con mensajes viralizados en redes sociales, los senadores sintieron la funa ciudadana expresada en las listas “verde” y “roja” en Internet  sobre su postura frente a esta ley. Y nuestro lobby constante, junto al esfuerzo de muchos y muchas personas, colectivos y organizaciones como la Asociación Nacional de Mujeres Rurales e Indígenas ANAMURI, logró que 21 senadores comprometieran públicamente (antes de las elecciones y cuando el proyecto estaba en tabla de votación en el Senado) su rechazo al proyecto de “Ley Monsanto”. También lo hicieran los candidatos presidenciales alternativos al sistema binominal. El entonces presidente Piñera retiró la urgencia al proyecto.

Ahora, la historia se repite, TPP mediante, con una Ley de Obtentores “revisada” pero que en lo esencial garantiza lo que ya rechazamos como ciudadanos: la privatización de la semilla, por la vía de la ratificación del Convenio UPOV 91.  Con la Plataforma Chile Mejor sin TPP que agrupa a más de  cien organizaciones del país, las organizaciones ambientales, sociales y campesinas que luchamos entonces contra la Ley Monsanto, seguiremos trabajando contra su nueva versión, para disponer de  semillas libres de patentes, transgénicos y plaguicidas. Nuestro desafío es asegurar la protección de la semilla mediante políticas públicas diferentes, de apoyo a la agroecología, la agricultura familiar campesina y la biodiversidad.

Lucía Sepúlveda

Periodismo Sanador

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