Apoyado en los Tratados De Libre Comercio, Walmart pide más represión para proteger sus ganancias

Camila Montecinos
ANAMURI y Chile Mejor sin TLC 

Algunos días atrás Walmart, la empresa de Estados Unidos que es dueña de los supermercados Lider, Ekono, A Cuenta y Central Mayorista, presentó seis recursos de protección contra el Estado de Chile exigiendo protección policial y que se implementen las medidas necesarias para “restablecer el imperio del derecho”. Asimismo, Walmart exige que el Estado de Chile “cumpla efectivamente con su obligación de garantizar el orden público y la seguridad pública interior”. En otras palabras, Walmart pide más represión. Las personas que han perdido sus ojos, los detenidos, heridos, asesinados, violados y torturados no parecen ser suficientes. ¿Qué está pidiendo Walmart? ¿Estado de Sitio? ¿Chipe libre para el abuso policial? ¿Quiere aún más garantías para seguir abusando de sus trabajadores, coludirse para subir los precios, abusar de su posición para eliminar la competencia, seguir haciendo cobros brujos?

¿En qué se basa Walmart para interponer estas demandas? En los privilegios y garantías que le otorga el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Chile y Estados Unidos.

En primer lugar, el tratado de libre comercio Chile-Estados Unidos otorga a las empresas de Estados Unidos un “trato nacional” en Chile; es decir, Walmart goza en Chile de todas las garantías a la propiedad privada que da la actual Constitución, las mismas garantías que permiten el abuso en los precios, la colusión, la desprotección de las y los trabajadores, los intereses abusivos cuando se compra a crédito, etc., etc. Vale recordar aquí que los inmigrantes en Estados Unidos no gozan de derechos constitucionales por el sólo hecho de ser extranjeros.

En segundo lugar, el tratado Chile-Estados Unidos establece que Chile debe otorgar a las empresas norteamericanas “protección y seguridad plenas”, lo que incluye protección policial.

Dado el historial de la justicia chilena, no sería sorprendente que fallen a favor de Walmart y que veamos a los supermercados con guardia policial en su interior. Pero Walmart pide además “orden público y seguridad pública interior”, lo que significa un Chile tranquilo y sumiso. Como todo indica que las protestas seguirán adelante, las demandas de Walmart ponen al Estado Chileno ante la siguiente disyuntiva: o aumenta la represión brutalmente hasta detener las protestas, o se arriesga a ser demandado por Walmart en tribunales privados internacionales, los que podrían ordenar a Chile pagar a Walmart las pérdidas que Walmart declare estar sufriendo. Walmart controla en Chile más del 40% de las ventas de los supermercados, lo que equivale a cerca de 375.000 millones de pesos cada mes, y 105 de sus 384 sufrieron daños durante las protestas. ¿Cuánto cobrará Walmart por todo esto?

Demandas como la de Walmart no se habían presentado anteriormente, pero en ningún caso son una sorpresa. Desde la negociación del tratado de libre comercio entre Chile y Estados Unidos, las organizaciones que se oponen a estos tratados han estado advirtiendo que ellos podían ser utilizados para obligar a los gobiernos a reprimir y perseguir. Las autoridades de gobierno, gran parte de los parlamentarios, los “expertos” del libre comercio, el empresariado, los medios de comunicación dominantes y los ideólogos del neoliberalismo nos han tratado de “paranoicos”. Walmart ahora nos ha dado la razón.

Pero hay más razones para preocuparse. A pesar de todos los privilegios al capital que entrega el tratado con Estados Unidos, el gran capital transnacional no se ha quedado tranquilo y se las ha arreglado para exigir más y más privilegios en los tratados que se han negociado posteriormente. En el caso de Chile, el peor de todos es el TPP-11 o CPTPP, donde las transnacionales exigen más que en todos los tratados anteriores. Si no queremos que Chile se convierta en una colonia al servicio de empresas como los dueños del Líder y que se nos bloquee nuestra demanda por una Constitución que detenga los abusos, la exigencia al gobierno y al parlamento de que se retire al TPP-11 del proceso de ratificación es tan central como la demanda por una nueva constitución a través de una Asamblea Constituyente

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