Aprobar el TPP amenaza e impediría el término de las AFP’s

Tras intentos del gobierno para reunirse con representantes de la Coordinadora No+AFP, que no quiso aceptar hasta que se les garantizara que participaría en ella la Presidenta de la República, este miércoles 31 se concretó el encuentro con Michelle Bachelet. En dicha cita expusieron porqué es necesario terminar con este “sistema” de capitalización individual y presentaron su propuesta técnica de un sistema público de pensiones.

Carolina Espinoza, vocera de la Coordinadora de trabajadores No+AFP, señalo “Hemos venido a dialogar y estamos absolutamente disponibles a seguir trabajando, levantando nuestra propuesta técnica”. También hizo un llamado a la ciudadanía “A no perder la fe ni perder la esperanza porque es posible un nuevo sistema previsional solo si nos movilizamos” además de recordar la campaña para que todos se cambien al Fondo E, el de menor riesgo.

nomasafpluismesinaEl vocero Luis Mesina afirmó que “(la Presidenta) va a estudiar la propuesta –no tiene absolutamente nada de novedoso- que plantea recibir las contribuciones de los trabajadores activos para pagar a los pasivos, no hay otro modelo mejor, está cuantificado. No hay más gasto público”.

Además mencionó que es necesario que las y los parlamentarios rechacen el Tratado Transpacífico de Asociación Económica e interpeló en el encuentro a la Presidenta a quitar de la tabla congresal el TPP.

Finalmente convocaron a una nueva marcha familiar para el 16 de octubre y a sumarse al Paro Nacional Productivo el 4 de noviembre

Pero ¿Por qué el TPP amenaza e impediría el término de las AFP’s?

La ratificación del Acuerdo Transpacífico TPP por parte de Chile es una abierta contradicción pues amenaza  y condiciona la posibilidad de terminar con las AFP pues  dificulta de manera estructural cualquier cambio de fondo que quisiéramos hacer soberanamente sobre el actual modelo de las AFP.

El TPP establece, en su capítulo de inversiones, tres componentes fundamentales que limitan la acción pública:

  • Primero, establece  que los inversionistas extranjeros  tienen una “expectativa razonable de ganancia”, la que no está sujeta a información, declaración, control ni evaluación por ninguna agencia nacional o multilateral.
  • Segundo, que cualquier actividad o decisión de un Estado signatario que pudiera afectar esta expectativa constituye una “interferencia pública” que podría ser causa de sanción, y,
  • Tercero, un sistema de solución de controversias entre inversionistas extranjeros y el Estado receptor de la inversión a través de tribunales arbitrales al que pueden recurrir los inversionistas y empresas  cada vez que consideren que alguna política estatal afecta sus expectativas. Si producto de ello un Estado es sancionado por estos tribunales, no sólo deberá pagar la indemnización que se le aplique, sino que deberá remover la causa que dio origen a esa sanción.

Actualmente tres poderosas empresas de Estados Unidos  (Principal, Metlife, Prudential ) controlan el 75% de los activos de todos los chilenos que manejan las AFPs. Son  más de 120 mil millones de dólares que manejan esas tres Transnacionales.

Hemos tenido una gran movilización para decir NO+AFPs, eso significa que tenemos que cambiar las reglas del juego para que la aspiración de las personas de tener una pensión decente sea una realidad. Pero si hoy tenemos tres AFPs, dentro de las seis, que controlan el 75 % de los activos y que son de Estados Unidos, que son del país que ha impulsado el TPP (que incluye a Chile), es claro que si ratificamos el TPP no vamos  a poder cambiar soberanamente las AFP’s  sin que seamos demandados. ¿Qué pasa si los chilenos decidimos migrar a un sistema de reparto?, Esas empresas podrán ir a un Tribunal internacional como el CIADI  y demandar al Estado de Chile por  ejercer su soberanía en un tema tan fundamental como la Seguridad Social.

Alianza del Pacifico y AFP’S

Con el TPP el  gobierno insiste en profundizar el sistema de AFP, y lo siguen profundizando con su política en la Alianza del Pacifico. Sin ir más lejos en la reciente XI  Cumbre de la Alianza del Pacifico realizada en Puerto Varas el 1ero de julio del 2016 y que ahora Preside Chile se informó que acordaron estudiar la normativa aplicable a las AFP´S de los países miembros  para avanzar en un acuerdo que podría lograr la homologación del tratamiento tributario de los ingresos obtenidos por los fondos de pensiones (AFP) reconocidos de los países del bloque.

Señalan  que iniciarán las evaluaciones sobre el reconocimiento de los gestores de fondos y la oferta de productos en los países de la región, junto y  evaluar mecanismos que permitan potenciar las inversiones de las AFP.

 

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