Plataforma Chile Mejor sin TLC: Intentar aprobar el TPP-11 en este momento histórico es desestimar las movilizaciones y el despertar social

Las polémicas disposiciones suspendidas probablemente sean repuestas si Estados Unidos reingresa al tratado,  o sea lo que es malo puede ser todavía peor.

Este domingo el Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores Andrés Allamand nuevamente hizo público el interés del gobierno en que el Senado apruebe el Tratado Integral y Progresivo de Asociación Transpacífico o TPP-11, antes de que las/os delegadas/os constituyentes sean escogidos. Esta declaración por parte del canciller chileno, se da en el contexto en que Joe Biden, presidente electo de EE.UU, anunciara durante su campaña que reingresaría a este acuerdo comercial. 

A ojos de la Plataforma Chile Mejor sin TLC estas situaciones aumentarían la presión en los senadores y senadoras para que el TPP-11 sea aprobado en su último trámite legislativo y así Chile pase a ser el octavo país en ratificarlo.

Es evidente que el gobierno tiene intenciones de aprobar el TPP-11 antes de que comience la redacción de la nueva Constitución para poder así dejar amarrado este nuevo documento a los requerimientos del TPP-11, es decir sobreponiendo los intereses de las grandes corporaciones por sobre los Derechos de los pueblos y las personas que  habitamos Chile, declara Alejandra Parra, bióloga de la Red de Acción por los Derechos Ambientales Araucanía.

Intentar aprobar el TPP-11 en este momento histórico es, simplemente, desestimar todas las movilizaciones y despertar social, es ignorar todo eso y muestra un empecinamiento obtuso de parte del gobierno que cede a las presiones internacionales de las grandes corporaciones. Sabemos que con el triunfo de Biden que anunció su intención de reincorporarse, va a haber más presión para que se apruebe en Chile, agrega Alejandra Parra.

El gobierno juega sus últimas cartas para introducir otra cuña al proceso, declara Lucía Sepúlveda, Red De Acción en Plaguicidas. La aprobación del TPP-11 implica que los riesgos de hacer cambios de fondo van a estar condicionados por el Sistema de resolución de controversias, es decir, las transformaciones se podrán hacer, pero el costo que el país tenga que pagar puede ser gigantesco, debido a las demandas por parte de los inversores que están avaladas bajo este tratado, indica Lucía.

Respecto a los riesgos que representa, para los países firmantes, la posible reincorporación de Estados Unidos, Sepúlveda explica que: cuando Trump se retiró del TPP, los otros países acordaron suspender algunos capítulos que habían sido muy debatidos, que tenían que ver principalmente con Propiedad Intelectual; tema de medicamentos e internet, eran los puntos más sensibles que levantaron protestas, porque aumentaban muchísimo los derechos de propiedad intelectual a las empresas. Sin embargo, que estén suspendidos no significa que estén eliminados, por tanto si EE.UU pide reingresar lo más probable es que esas cláusulas sean repuestas con el beneplácito de todos los gobiernos que esperan ese regreso, dijo Sepúlveda. 

De las 20 disposiciones suspendidas del TPP, una de las que más rechazo causó en la ciudadanía fue el que permite revalidar patentes de medicamentos, argumentando que ahora el medicamento tiene un “segundo uso”, lo que retrasa indefinidamente la entrada de genéricos al mercado. Esto aplica para medicamentos biológicos, que son principalmente contra las enfermedades catastróficas . Habrá además 8 años de exclusividad para esos medicamentos.

Otro de los puntos suspendidos que podrían volver a estar vigentes al volver EE.UU son los relacionadas con el uso de internet, estos consideran delito la descarga libre de información de internet o el colgarse de señales satelitales. Los proveedores deben identificar en tribunales a quienes eludan las llamadas “medidas tecnológicas de protección”, que son los obstáculos digitales impuestos por las empresas. Esto implica la criminalización y restricción de libertad en internet, masificación de demandas e incluso posible uso de esto por los gobiernos para restringir la libertad de expresión.

Por último, entre estas suspensiones están algunas relativas al capítulo más controvertido, el que tiene que ver con el Sistema de Resolución de Controversias, o sea las demandas. Se imponen aquí definiciones sobre acuerdo de inversión y autorización de inversión, selección de árbitros, derecho aplicable, y notas al pie sobre las reglas del arbitraje que agravan aún más los riesgos.

Es decir que el posible reingreso de Estados Unidos significa que lo que es malo puede ser todavía peor, concluye Lucía Sepúlveda.

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